Dissertation Tips from the Dissertation Experts

hi I’m mark Baldwin founder and CEO of edit nine-one-one today I’d like to give you the top 12 tips in writing a dissertation this is kind of an abridged version and you can find a full-length article on the subject on our blog first of all find a topic that you love and care about choose the topics that you’ll be able to live with think about constantly and even dream about for a few years number two begin thinking about your dissertation topic from the beginning of your studies every course you take will require you to submit a paper or some sort of project so try to make an original observation about the topic in every paper or project you submit number three when considering original research topics your dissertation don’t overlook the possibility of synthesizing sub-disciplines it isn’t unusual to find two different disciplines or sub disciplines that address the same problem on different domains with different methodologies number four when taking classes and reading assignments make a note of every term concept and reference to another work that you’re not familiar with then take the time to learn about unfamiliar ideas unfortunately many people don’t learn how to be true lifelong learners during their undergraduate studies number five learn all you can about research methods in your discipline while research methods are broadly divided into qualitative quantitative and mixed methods within those general areas are many specific sub methods understand the methodology that’s generally used in the sub disciplines you’re focusing on and how it compares to other methodologies you could use learn to use the terminology correctly making it part of your everyday vocabulary number six when doing research on your selected topic work on understanding and evaluating all sides of the issue both in terms of research methods used and in terms of those theories pertaining to your area of interest be open-minded when reading viewpoints that oppose your own think clearly about why you don’t agree with an author stance and build clear specific arguments it directly addressed the points that you don’t agree with number seven if you’ll be using statistics consider auditing a stats course or the very least invest in a good textbook on statistics learn to talk and write about statistics correctly and knowledgeably number eight set up a good organization system for your library of articles and books at the very beginning of your graduate studies if you have hard copies of articles invest in a small file cabinet folders and finally articles according to topic sub discipline or author name use a system that makes sense to you number nine learn and use good file management on your computer many articles today are available in PDFs such files can be searched for key terms but you can’t search in an article if you can’t find it so learn to create folders on your computer and net and nest them make them neat number 10 as part of your file management begin building a spreadsheet file or a database if you have the software know-how of all the articles books webpages and videos you found number 11 early on in your research process determine the documentation style you’ll use your grad school or program may mandate a particular style or you may be free to select your own if you can select your own learn the style that is used most often in your discipline number 12 once you know which documentation style you’ll use for your dissertation by the appropriate manual and use it as often as possible for papers written in classes note the documentation styles include much more than simply outsources are used they often specify how numbers would be treated in the text how tables and figures are displayed how sources are referred to for example APA requires past tense when writing about a source while literary works cited an MLA are generally written about in present tense and even which prefixes occur with hyphens and types of phrases are hyphenated becoming familiar with the documentation style before you actually begin writing the dissertation will make your writing process much easier taking the time to consider these tips early on in your graduate studies can make the process of writing your dissertation go much more smoothly and strengthen the integrity of your work

MLA Tutorial #1: Basic Paper Formatting

the Modern Language Association helps students write papers that are simple for other students to read and for teachers to grade the MLA developed this format with a concern for easy reading and easy grading following it will produce a paper that allows readers to consider what you have written rather than worrying about how you have presented it the basic format calls for some fairly simple rules let’s go over them in this tutorial this is a standard MLA formatted paper let’s talk about its qualities first of all make sure to double-spaced all writing in the entire paper this includes the heading the title and all other sections even when you construct your works cited page you’ll find that that entire page is double-spaced as well make sure to double space everything next left justify the entire paper you’ll see a flush edge here on the left and a jagged one here on the right third include no extra spaces between paragraphs Microsoft Word 2007 and later versions include a default 10-point space after every enter stroke eliminate this extra space I’ll explain how in just a moment on the first page include a heading with four pieces of information on separate lines first the author’s name second the teacher’s name third the course title and fourth the date formatted with a spelled out month as with the rest of the paper left justify and double-spaced this heading next use one-inch margins all around top bottom left and right on multi-page papers include header in the top right hand corner with author’s last name and page number most word processing programs can include a header with progressive page numbers so you don’t have to change it for every page check with your software for details on how to accomplish this next Center the title on the line below the heading do not add extra spaces before or after it and do not bold underline or italicize the title and use the same 12-point font as for everything else and that brings us to the last point 12 point Times New Roman font the entire MLA paper should be formatted according to a recognizable and standard font like Times New Roman New York Helvetica use something standard Times New Roman is a great default and 12-point size for everything including the title the format is simple to follow with standard word processing software like Microsoft Word you can even set defaults for certain format commands like margins so if you want to make sure that your margins are one inch all around every time in a program like word you can set the default for that check with your software for more details but every time you format an MLA paper make sure it looks as the example looks on the screen right now let’s talk a little bit about that pesky little Microsoft Word 2007 space setting in Microsoft Word 2007 every time you press the Enter key an extra 10 point space appears after the line that you just typed creating extra spaces beyond the double spacing between paragraphs removing the setting is fairly simple but remember it does come installed as a default setting once you install the software when you access the paragraph menu and I’ll show you how to access that at the moment you can see right here the after spacing the after spacing is set for ten point font so once you see that you can reduce it down to zero such as you can see here simply reduce that to zero and you can also make that your default by pressing this button down at the bottom of the window it will ask you if you want to make that your default you say yes and you’re good to go here’s how you can access that menu take a look here on Microsoft Word you can right-click anywhere on an empty page and go to the paragraph menu very quickly right here if you don’t want to access it that way in 2007 you can access the paragraph menu here next to the paragraph command and easily you can change those settings and set them to your default and never have to worry about it again following MLA format is simple if you follow these instructions set your defaults and understand your software

High School – Ep. 2 “Group Projects” (The Office Parody)

land of the free anyways today we’re going to do group projects oh but what are we doing on projects on presidents finally some alone time with Killian Jules it was always my childhood dream to become a United States leader now I’m a classroom leader so guys what else bagel presidents build one for obvious reasons yeah we have no idea about anything about presidents Akali can ask you a question who is your favorite president I don’t know Thomas says you’re funny I don’t know about at the event I could literally not care less if I could carry any less I would be brain dead he’s just be doing to this about what really we can just show up and leave whenever we want obviously he doesn’t really care I don’t think it all told us we’re hubs not looking at anything can’t make the player hate the game so today in class Jules just kind of ran out she said I was shaking her out I mean I was but can you blame me Nate pockets top two juniors presentation Jorge washing machine was the second greatest president the United Nations – hell yeah William ball Oakland let me tell you a few things I love about Bill Clinton first of all he’s 69 years old take a bow Monica Lewinsky you know he’s sticker than a bowl of oatmeal third yeah bill playing on the sax late at night I can see why Hillary got me all right mister still know them that’s enough you can have a seat now that was ridiculous hit the plane you teach me idiots next Jason and Hunter Broadway he was a very strong man and he tore down that one area yeah the Watergate was escaped doing scandalous but it was fruit peace jay-z sir this is a speech well on the writing the Great Communicator in Europe you’re stubborn about get back to your seat that’s terrible it’s worst yet worse than NIC what you see all you have to do to make a good grade in this class is just say the most conservative thing you can think of and he’ll love it so it’s one person and he was a person Republican to be in the White House and that that’s why Abraham Lincoln my class no here no here please don’t read it and give it here oh just all the way please don’t leave that please I’ll tell you about no way to read this to the whole class once they’re out of they don’t I never write notes again in your class I think we can make a deal Jason it’s unavailable with the thing or two and I won’t read this but until the end I’m gonna keep it with me yes sir understood yes sir sit down bacon Walker here you

Writing a Thesis Statement

hello and welcome as you continue to develop your skills in a research and writing I wanted to take this episode of the ten minute teacher to help you in developing your thesis statement as I shared in a previous video good theological research and writing is about the thinking process and where that process begins is in the ability to ask good questions and to honestly question everything kate turabian and our students guide to writing college papers says this a researchers most valuable asset is the ability to be puzzled by seemingly obvious things like the shape of coffee rings or that the hair on your head keeps growing while the body hair doesn’t cultivate the ability to question the commonplace and you’ll never lack for research projects questioning the obvious is also the first step in critical thinking which is a skill much prized in the workplace so if you want to be successful not just in academics but in your workplace or any environment the ability to question everything to develop questions out of stuff that seems obvious to everybody else is your first key to success so let’s take for example this story out of Genesis 34 in which the sons of Jacob are confronting Chesham and Haymore because they’ve deceitfully taken their sister Dinah into a marriage relationship and they are really they’ve defiled her and they’ve defiled Israel by the way they’ve taken her so they they basically have this plan of tricking them so that they can conquer them and punish them for what they’ve done and to do that they plan this idea that well hey your people are uncircumcised but if you want to take our women as your wives you have to be circumcised first so really then this brings up the question of circumcision and what is it about circumcision that made Israel so different than the nations around them and that’s where you begin to find your research question by asking what intrigues you what causes your friends to ask questions what ideas claims or facts make you think wow I didn’t know that or how can that be possibly true questions ultimately lead you to important topics so that leads us to step two we need to pick a topic first you want to pick something meaningful a topic that matters to you and you want to narrow down your topic to a very specific idea so in this example which is better a study of the Old Testament or the book of Genesis well book of Genesis well what about the book of Genesis or the life of Abraham well the life of Abraham is better it gets more specific we keep going the life of Abraham versus the call of Abraham how about the call of Abraham vs. God’s use of circumcision in the call of Abraham so you see how very quickly we went from a very broad topic to a very specific one each one improving the potential quality of a research project so after you’ve kind of narrowed down an idea the next best thing is to consult at least to reference works about your topic so in my case I’m gonna open up the anchor Yale Bible Dictionary excellent resource and in it I find this article by David Noll Friedman who says this in the ancient Near East circumcision was widely practiced in two distinct forms certain classes of Egyptian men especially priests slit the foreskin to let it hang free many men from Western Semitic groups in Syria and Palestine removed the foreskin altogether the origins of the practice are irretrievable so he’s saying hey there’s all these groups that used circumcision and knowing where it started no one will ever be able to solve that question essentially so now that I’ve researched and a couple of reference works the next idea is then I have to pick a topic that has a clear issue or problem to do that effectively I’m really going to discover the issues at stake how does your topic fit into the big picture of history or culture or religion what topics are similar to your topic what are some of the subcategories of your topic what do your friends think about this topic is it interesting to them or a what-if question what if this happened or what if this topic were considered today in a different cultural context all these what-if questions get you really thinking about the deeper issues so next you’ll want to do a two to three hundred word summary write about what you’ve learned write about the basic issues surrounding the topic but understand you’re not making any attempt to solve quote-unquote hit any issues that are coming up in your mind you’re not trying to solve these questions you’re only trying to demonstrate your own understanding of the issues once you’ve done that you can move on to step three which is to formulate your research question next you want to formulate two or three possible research questions and how did you this well of course when a narrow your topic down to a specific question I recommend avoiding things like the standard who what when and where instead really focus on why and how these tend to be a lot more intriguing and these generate topics that are far more interesting for research you also want to consider turning your question into a problem by asking a so what question and so by finding a question and then turning it into a problem again it engages not only your mind as a researcher but it will help engage the mind of the reader so moving on from our story in Genesis a good topic might be circumcision in the call of Abraham and a question you might ask one possible one is did other people groups in the Middle East practice circumcision if so why did God choose circumcision as a sign for Abraham so in other words if this is well as a common practice as one of our books seem to suggest why did God use something that’s common as a symbol to set people apart here are some examples of things that would make a bad research question anything that the answer is too easily found in a single source if you can find the answer to a question by opening up your first book it’s not going to be a good research question anything that there’s only one irrefutable answer we’re not looking to research something that only has one answer that everybody agrees is the answer look for something that is controversial or has different opinions that way you can really dig in and explore your topic also if your research question has too many resources that means your question is really too broad so if you’re finding thousands of possible articles and resources that all addressed this question chances are you’ve picked something far too broad to be considered you want to find something that has a good amount of resources but not so many that everybody else has thought to ask those same questions this brings us the step 4 writing of your thesis so what is a thesis then it’s a concise statement of your topic that clearly defines both the purpose and the scope of your paper so here’s an example thesis statement given our earlier study this paper will examine God’s use of circumcision in the call of Abraham as a unique sign of divine covenant in the Near Eastern culture so here we have the topic God’s use of circumcision in the call of Abraham we have the purpose a unique sign of divine covenant and the scope which limits the study is within the context of Near Eastern culture another way to kind of visually represent this and it helps if you maybe write this down for yourself as you’re writing out your thesis statement is to put each of those key phrases into a topic purpose and scope statement you also find as you’re writing out these statements a useful formula from turabian section 2.4 says for example friedman claims and then you write what they claim but this researcher will show what you know that shows what you’re gonna explore so that’s a good formulaic example and there’s others within turabian another way to make sure you have a good thesis statement is to find an issue in blank that raises a question about a specific aspect of blank whenever you’re looking at who’s the answer will help explain a larger theme feature or quality of blank again you fill in these things so if you can write this sense and fill that in in a way that makes sense to say a friend so fill this in with your ideas share it with a friend and if it makes sense to them it’s probably a good thesis statement step 5 then is to write a basic outline and in your basic outline identify the main points that flow from your thesis statement one of the main problems you need to solve you want to write a preliminary three or four point outline as a starting point for your research okay and that’s it for the first five steps for developing your thesis statement but you may say I’m still confused or I’m still struggling with this whole process well here’s kind of a little exercise you could do that may help get your creative juices flowing and this is a little teaching exercise choose a task that is familiar to your making coffee saddling a horse making a paper airplane whatever you understand write a set of instructions to teach someone else this task and then I want you to go and teach someone else to do your task as that person tried to follow your instructions what came up how would you improve those instructions and as you do that you’ll kind of get your mind thinking about that process of teaching others to understand something that’s understandable to you and that’s exactly the same process of writing a research paper you’re taking something that you understand because you’ve researched and you’re trying to show somebody else how you came to a conclusion all right now it’s a great time to head to the library and begin your research

Cubero, altura para el proyecto del Yosíquesé

El YosÍquesÉ coge forma de cara a su segunda temporada consecutiva en el Grupo D de la Liga EBA. A la espera de incorporar a dos jugadores extranjeros -un pÍvot y un hombre exterior- mejores macetas para interior completar la plantilla, la entidad presidida por Ángel Lopera anunciÓ ayer la incorporaciÓn de Roberto Cubero, Último fichaje nacional y cuarta pieza nueva del plantel de Rafa Sanz tras las llegadas de Unai Friscia, Carlos Gracia y Juan RamÍrez.

Cubero, natural de Baena, aportarÁ altura al juego interior del equipo cordobÉs gracias a sus 2,08 centÍmetros. Con 18 aÑos, el pÍvot llega al YosÍquesÉ tras formar parte del Unicaja jÚnior, con el que logrÓ el Campeonato de AndalucÍa el curso pasado. Antes estuvo enrolado en el Portus Magnus de AlmerÍa tras salir de la cantera del Bball CÓrdoba. Este aÑo, en su primera citaciÓn con la selecciÓn espaÑola sub 18, logrÓ el oro en el Torneo de Piestany (Eslovaquia).

A los cuatro refuerzos realizados se unen tambiÉn los que renovaron su vÍnculo con la entidad cordobesa. En este sentido, Ángel LÓpez, Joselito GutiÉrrez, Javi SÁnchez, Carlos GarcÍa, Adolfo Vega y el capitÁn Arturo LÓpez estarÁn presentes hoy en el inicio de los entrenamientos (Vista Alegre, 17:00). Los que no siguen son Ángel VÁzquez, enrolado en el Albacete, Rod GonÇalves, Ángel GonzÁlez Villatoro y Rafa Blanco. Por otro lado, Juanjo LÓpez, vinculado aÚn al club, estarÁ hoy en el coliseo de Ciudad JardÍn junto a Pepe JimÉnez y Paco Carbonero, jÚniors del Cordobasket. Esta semana el YosÍquesÉ tiene previsto realizar cuatro sesiones (hoy, martes, jueves y viernes). Se acaban las vacaciones y el equipo cordobÉs arranca la preparaciÓn con la vista puesta en octubre y en el estreno liguero ante el UniÓn Linense.

Jovic, a un test de volver con el Real Madrid

La vuelta de Jovic junto a sus compañeros podría estar muy cerca. Si el serbio da negativo en la última prueba del coronavirus que se le realizará en los próximos días, podría estar disponible para Zidane de cara al duelo ante el Villarreal que se disputará en el estadio Alfredo di Stéfano el próximo jueves. Tras haber superado los dos primeros test, el delantero está a expensas de dar negativo en el tercero para poder volver a trabajar junto a sus compañeros.

Hay que recordar que Jovic ha estado aislado en su domicilio desde el pasado 8 de julio, después de que estuviese en contacto con un amigo que dio positivo por coronavirus. El jugador madridista dio negativo en los dos primeros test, pero todavía tendrá que superar un tercero.

El amigo de Jovic llegó a Madrid el pasado lunes 6 de julio procedente de Belgrado y fue obligado a someterse al test de coronavirus de acuerdo con el protocolo que dicta el conjunto blanco para las personas cercanas a los futbolistas. Tras dar positivo, se le apartó del día a día de Jovic y el delantero fue puesto de forma instantánea en cuarentena.

La vuelta de Jovic, que ha participado en 25 partidos esta temporada, aunque casi siempre para disputar los minutos finales y sólo ha marcado dos goles, sería una gran noticia para Zidane, ya que el francés sólo tiene un delantero disponible para el duelo ante el Granada después de conocerse que Mariano está lesionado.

La temporada del serbio no está siendo la esperada, aunque Zidane ha manifestado públicamente que cuenta con él mejores barbacoas de obra cara al próximo curso. Jovic ya fue noticia antes del regreso de la competición por volver lesionado y saltarse el protocolo de la Liga tras organizar una barbacoa en su casa junto con el futbolista del Getafe, Maksimovic, y Saponjic, del Atlético de Madrid.

También ha estado en problemas con las autoridades serbias después de saltarse la cuarentena. La Fiscalía de Belgrado pidió a la policía que presentase una denuncia contra el jugador por abandonar su domicilio sin justificación, para, según el medio serbio Informer, celebrar por las calles de Belgrado el cumpleaños de su pareja, la modelo Sofija Milosevic.

How one can Make money From The Descargar Loba Negra Phenomenon

“Scoring a goal, you can’t celebrate properly as fans or players because you’ve got to wait two or three minutes before it actually gets given … you want the game to flow and, if a goal is scored, for the emotions to take over,” he said. “The less you see the VAR get involved in matches, the better.”

From this weekend, loba negra mobi Brosque will get his wish. A memo issued to clubs says video referees should not “go looking for infringements that are by definition not match changing”.

Video assistant referees: everything you need to know Read moreVARs should only get involved in obvious mistakes or missed incidents, with a high threshold of intervention and a focus on match-changing situations. Video referees have also been stripped of the power to suggest changing yellow-card decisions to dismissals where the on-field referee has issued a caution.

Off-the-ball incidents will still be looked at.

In tweaking the system, the memo acknowledges the changes “are not completely in line with the trial protocol” agreed with Fifa for the trial. But the weight of criticism from an already small fanbase has forced FFA’s hand.

“Charlotte’s blue and white dress is a fascinating piece of clothing that reveals many insights into the life of its owner,” she said. “Its size, the choice of materials and cut, and the quality, have all allowed Eleanor to piece together when it was worn, and what it reveals about the public life of this very private author.”

* David Lodge’s The Man Who Wouldn’t Get Up and Other Stories is published by Vintage.

The Just William books by Richmal Crompton

Chosen by Deborah Moggach

There’s a snobbishness in our literary world that equates laughter with shallowness. How untrue that is. There’s nothing shallow about my favourite comic writers – Nora Ephron, Nancy Mitford, Beryl Bainbridge (her description of undignified middle-aged sex in Injury Time strangely lingers). But for me, and I suspect many others, the funniest books of all time are the Just William books.

I suppose they’re for children, and I got hooked on them when I was William’s age, 11, but I still turn to them when I need a rush of joy. It’s a comfort just knowing they’re sitting on my shelves, shabby in their disintegrating jackets, waiting to welcome me back into the world of William, his fellow Outlaws and his suburban family of anxious mother, remote father and mad spinster aunts.

‘Great comedy isn’t heartless – far from it. When we laugh at its protagonists, we also laugh at ourselves’

Deborah MoggachRichmal Crompton was a peerless writer who understood that the basis for comedy is the disconnect between how we see ourselves and how others see us. William’s older brother Robert considers himself to be a suave man about town but what we see is a hapless and humourless young chap, struggling to maintain his dignity, whose efforts to engage with the opposite sex are constantly sabotaged by his infuriating little sibling. Ditto Ethel, the vain and beautiful older sister, who also comes a cropper through William’s often well-meaning efforts to help her or, more often, get himself out of a scrape.

And the most important thing is that we mind about them. Great comedy isn’t heartless – far from it. When we laugh at its protagonists, we also laugh at ourselves. I’m 68, but there’s still a part of me who’s an 11-year-old crashing around the countryside, unwittingly causing mayhem from often the best intentions.

“The white and blue delaine Thackeray dress would have been the right choice for such a meeting. Its high neck, long sleeves and mid-quality printed fabric point to pretty but unassuming morning attire.”

* John O’Farrell’s There’s Only Two David Beckhams is published by Black Swan.

Facebook Twitter Pinterest ‘The worse the world gets, the more we need to laugh’ … Marina Lewycka. Illustration: Leon EdlerExtinction by Thomas Bernhard

Chosen by Geoff Dyer

I am not exaggerating when I say that Thomas Bernhard is the funniest writer ever and that Extinction, his last novel, is his funniest. The narrator is in Rome when he learns that his parents and brother have been killed in a car crash back in Austria. The story, in so far as there is one, unfolds in a two-paragraph torrent over 300 pages from a narrator who claims to have “cultivated the art of exaggeration to such a pitch that I can call myself the greatest exponent of the art that I know of”.

Geoff Dyer’s White Sands: Experiences from the Outside World is published by Canongate.

Lint by Steve Aylett

Chosen by Bridget Christie

This satirical biography of the fictional cult writer Jeff Lint is still the funniest book I’ve ever read. It’s exhausting: every sentence is so funny and has so many ideas in it that I had to read it really slowly to take it all in. If you find the idea of a baffled chef funny, or titles such as “Jelly Result”, “The Stupid Conversation”, “I Eat Fog”, “The Nose Furnace”, “I Blame Ferns” or “The Man Who Gave Birth to His Arse”, then you’ll love it. Inventive, absurd and audacious, it’s a comic gem.

What Are Nuevo Teclado Tfue?

Named Watch Post (the Portuguese acronym is PV), the village has been swallowed by the heavy equipment of hundreds of illegal gold miners (called garimpeiros). What was once a few huts hidden in the Amazon forest now resembles a bombed battlefield.

In January, this reporter was the only non-indigenous member of a warrior party sent to PV Village to reclaim it from the miners. The expedition navigated the entire 226km length of the Tropas River.

For the Munduruku, the Tropas is now a dead river, muddy and toxic with mercury. Around PV Village, the waters are lined by strips of barren land, fallen trees, huge holes dug by excavators, scattered huts and unpaved roads used by motorcycles, tractors and quadbikes.

“Game used to be very easy here – pig, deer, tapir. But it is all gone due to the machines and pollution. Now, only one stream still has fish, but they are all sick from mercury”, said 70-year-old Chief Osvaldo, in a conversation inside his hut, which remains in the village. “This damage will remain forever.”

There is even an airstrip, where single-engined aeroplanes make around 10 flights a day to Creporizão town, 25 minutes away. The air bridge transports fuel, food, liquor, illegal drugs, mechanical parts, mercury, sex workers, merchants – and a lot of gold.

Despite the industrial scale, the whole process is illegal. According to Brazilian law, mining in indigenous lands is a federal crime. In practice, though, large swaths of the Amazon, including federal protected areas, have increasingly become stateless zones dominated by gold, teclado mecanico tfue land-grabbers and criminal timber rings.

The direct impact of mining on Brazil’s out-of-control deforestation is small in comparison to clearing for pasture, but it is not negligible and is increasing. Between 2016 and 2017, the number of illegal mines discovered in the forest by the official radar monitoring system rose from 382 to 949.

The Tapajós basin, one of Brazil’s largest gold reserves, is now a hotspot for deforestation. Federal police and environmental agents are outnumbered and hampered by budget restraints.

Whole cities’ economies now depend on illegal, environmentally-damaging activities, capturing local politics and gaining social acceptance. Itaituba, a city of 98,000 people, elected a former gold miner as mayor. It even has a “gold street”, where the metal is sold openly despite its illegal origin.

The result is a breakdown between federal and local enforcement. When illegal garimpeiros burned two government environmental offices to the ground in Humaitá, state governor Amazonino Mendes sided with the miners.

In indigenous lands, the void left by the state is even more dramatic. In the 23,820 square kilometre Munduruku indigenous territory, which is the size of Belize, Brazil’s federal indigenous bureau Funai maintains only one employee.

With no allies, the Munduruku have decided to take matters into their own hands. On 17 January this year, they published a manifesto that said PV Village “no longer exists” and announced a warrior expedition to “arrest and expel all pariwat from our land” and “destroy all mining machinery”. This followed a decision taken during the people’s general assembly, last year.

A few days later, a six-boat party of bow-and-arrow armed warriors, leaders such as the Munduruku chief Arnaldo Kaba and several children left for PV Village. Authorised by the leadership, Climate Home News joined the group. Funai’s representative refused to go, citing a lack of security.

As the boats moved upstream, the water changed from light brown to the colour of thick mud. The expedition passed many Munduruku villages. Locals reported they had stopped fishing and drinking from the river about four years ago.

At the tributary of the Caburuá, clear dark water feeds into the brown Tropas, a shocking contrast. Biyom Saw, a 29-year-old Munduruku female warrior who travelled with her baby son, blamed the pariwat for the contaminated water. “We can’t fish, and the children are hungry. If we bathe in the river, rashes appear.”

The final hours of the journey to PV Village run along a river that is thick, lifeless and brown. All around, the forest is cleared to give the garimpeiros access to the soil and gold beneath. Some of the craters are several meters deep, and the old ones fill with muddy, poisoned water.

Along the river, garimpeiros work with excavators, stand outside huts or drive around. “It looks like a city,” said Ana Poxo, one of the expedition leaders, whose village is a two-day boat trip away.

At PV Village, about 60 gold miners live alongside 15 remaining Munduruku families. They have turned the one-room public school into a dormitory. Many more live in shanties scattered through the forest. Chief Osvaldo said that after a few previous attempts to enter the Munduruku indigenous territory, the garimpeiros struck deals with some local leaders. Soon, dozens of pariwat arrived and took control of the territory.

Now, in this once remote corner of the Amazon, there are food stores, a brothel and liquor joints. One of them, Osvaldo explained, is run by his eldest son, who also allows the miners to explore for gold.

Osvaldo expressed disapproval of his son’s choices. “My son forced his 8-year-son to drink. The child got drunk. He should apologise to everybody for this,” he said.

With the arrival of the expedition party, the Munduruku warriors tried to reestablish authority over the village. Some 40 of them went to the small businesses, inspected them in search of drugs and alcohol and ordered them to close. At a meeting in the village centre, the Munduruku’s chief Kaba demanded the miners leave.

“The Tropas river is dead”, he told dozens of garimpeiros. “I didn’t see even a butterfly crossing it.” The garimpeiros took his people’s gold and contaminated their water with mercury, he says. “You have to go. It’s not me who is expelling you, it’s our people. I don’t order anything, it’s the people.”

The task, however, is complex. Exploiting divisions among the Munduruku, the garimpeiros claimed they were there with the permission of local leaders. With their traditional food resources depleted, PV Village now depends on aeroplanes to bring food. During the meeting, garimpeiros tried to use this leverage to make compromises, promising all sorts of gifts, from fish tanks to gold.

“Sometimes we go to Creporizão [a nearby town] and spend 15, 20 grams of gold on rum and prostitution. I say this based on my own experience. And we don’t have the guts to give Chief Osvaldo 5 grams, 10 grams?” said Barbudo – ‘Beardy’ – a garimpeiro, to the meeting.

Several Munduruku work in the mine as cheap labor. A few have even become bosses and sided with the pariwat. One of them, Waldelirio Manhuary, now lives in a brick house in the city. He is one of the few to defend the non-indigenous presence, saying the pollution was an acceptable side-effect of the mining business.

“The federal government wants us to remain in the jungle, only hunting and fishing. It doesn’t want us to bring machines and to do the way they do it, like growing soybeans. We are poor and rich, because we are siting on a very big wealth,” he said.

Requests for comment from Funai about the Munduruku remain unanswered. So far, no government agency has tried to shut down the PV gold mining operation or tested the water in the Tropas River.

According to information gathered by the Munduruku leadership, mining resumed right after the warriors’ two-day visit. Arnaldo Kaba said that, if they don’t go, there will be a new expedition, now only with warriors. “Then all the other villages will come,” said the leader of the 14,000-strong ethnic group. “This is the warning we left.”

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